Persian Lesson 1 – The Alphabet, Short Vowels, B, P, T Letters


Persian Ancient Writing
This is the first Farsi lesson. For those who are, to some extent, familiar with these basics of Persian language, it might seem redundant. Nevertheless, as mentioned above, we are going to learn Persian from the very scratch that I think will be more helpful. Little by little, we will make great progress to begin advanced Persian that will let you communicate with others in Persian in both oral and written. In near future, you will find yourself speaking, reading, and even writing in Persian. These all can only be achieved through practicing these simple steps, which make learning as easy as possible.

Lesson 1 (Start from the very beginning!)

Like anything else, you’ll have to learn some basics first, and it’s inevitable! In these lessons, I have tried hard to simplify the rules as much as possible. However, it’s a new language for you and requires at least a little bit of effort if not very much! All you have to do is be patient and follow the instructions one by one. In the meantime, we are going to learn the Persian letters and the way they are pronounced and of course we will do it step by step to make sure that everything is quite clear. After you got a little familiarity with some basics you would see that it’s really as easy as 1, 2, 3.

1. Unlike western languages, Persian is written and read from right to left.

2. Persian consists of 32 letters. Some of them have small and big form like A / a in English while others have only one form. You don’t need to memorize all of them now. Just be patient enough to learn it one by one. In the end you’ll see your progress.

3. As you know, English words cannot be pronounced without these five letters: A, E, I, O, U, and sometimes Y as in BY. These are called vowels. In Persian, however, there are no letters considered as vowels. Instead, we put some sounds on or under the letters to make them readable. There are six main sounds in Persian recognized as vowels, three short vowels and three long vowels. Remember that these are not letters. These are sounds that come with letters and make them pronounceable. Today we will learn short vowels.

The representatives (symbols) of these sounds (vowels) are as follows:

1-   Do you see the small symbol on A? If this sign sits on a letter, the letter will be pronounced as /æ/ in dad.

2-  If this sign, which is exactly written in the same way as in number one, sits under a letter, it will be pronounced as /e/ in set.

3-  If this sign, which has a circle on his head, sits on a letter, it will be pronounced as /o/ in border.

Note: this sign sits on the letters only.

These three sounds are called short vowels.

Now that you are familiar with these three short vowels you are ready to learn a couple of letters to practice with these sounds.

Today we are going to learn three big letters as well as their small forms.

1-  This is the big letter ‘B’ in Persian. In the meantime, you don’t need to learn how to write it. We are just trying to pronounce it with the help of those three short vowels above. Ready? Don’t worry. I’ll write it for you. All you have to do is pronounce it.

This is /bæ/ as in battery.

This one is /be/ as in bed.

This one is /bo/ as in border.

Try to repeat it for a couple of times.

2-  This one is the small letter ‘b’ in Persian. Now try to pronounce this letter in the same way. Don’t forget to read from right to left. You will say. 

Don’t be afraid! It’s not that much difficult. Don’t believe me? Click here to listen.

B letters

Note: big letters come at the end of the words and may stand either attached or separated from other letters (they are separable), while the small letters come at the beginning or in the middle of the words and are attached to some other letters (they are inseparable). There is only one exception that will be explained later.

3- This one is the big letter ‘P’ in Persian. Try to pronounce it with the short vowels.

as /pæ/ in pad.

as /pe/in pet.

as /po/in pork.

4-   This one is the small letter ‘p’ in Persian. Try to pronounce it. Don’t forget to read from right to left. You will say:  

Need help? Click here to listen.

P letters

5-  This one is big letter ‘T’ in Persian. Try to pronounce it with the short vowels.

as /tæ/ in tab.

as /te/ in tennis.

as /to/ in torn.

6-  This is the small letter ‘t’. Don’t forget to read from right to left. Try to pronounce it. 

Still need help? Click here.

T letters

Ok. With this we come to the end of lesson one. I hope you have enjoyed it. Make sure to check the Useful drills now. Don’t forget to visit this page every weekend. This site is updated weekly.

That’s it for today. Feel tired? Hit me

Click here if you want to write in Persian.

Lesson 1


  1. Dari Farsi Teacher says:

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  2. Cloudy Cloud says:

    Its fun learninig a new language. Farsi is a language of sufism. Will be back tomorrow for next lesson.

  3. Kamran Sarwar says:

    Just want to learn 2 languages before I depart this earth. Farsi and French.
    Already an Urdu, Danish, English, German and Punjabi speaker.
    Kamran Sarwar, Denmark

  4. Salam; i want to learn farsi because its very great language and sweet too. I know how to speak english,urdu and little bit farsi.Come what may i am to learn persian.
    pay my regard to you.
    Rizwan kazim.Pakistan

  5. Hi! I love this this site! I am leaning Farsi for Persian boyfriend. I am painting him a picture and I want to write “I Love you” in the middle. I know “dooset daram” is “love you”, but he says you really say “man dooset daram” for “I love you” Can anyone help me with the Persian letters for man dooset daram. I think all I am finding online is dooset daram. Thank you!!

    • Hi Katie
      “dooset daram” is “I love you” . But if you want to say “I’m in love with you” you must say “aasheghetam”.
      we use “dooset darm” or “man dooset daram” for mother , father, our friends or teachers and …..for boy friend or girl friend.
      anyway …
      dooset daram : دوست دارم
      man dooset daram : من دوست دارم
      aasheghetam : عاشقتم
      If you have any question I’ll be happy to help you.

  6. test

  7. I think that is a very good website for learning Persian:

  8. Just want to learn farsi language but starting from scratch.l

  9. my hasband is from afganistan i want to learn it i m pakistani but it seems difficult for me what should i do help me

  10. Well crafted

  11. Farsi Dari Teacher/Tutor says:

    Interested to learn Farsi/Dari quickly? Send me an

  12. i know a site that has just started to learn persian vocabulary and its address is: it is good for learning vocabulary.

  13. I wanted to thank you for this. My father was from Iran, and he constantly wished for me to learn and wished for me to learn. He tried and tried. I always resisted it, but now that he has passed away, I wished to make him happy. Thank you for this chance to learn.

  14. Nitin Chaurasia says:

    Thank you so much for organizing the website this well. It makes learning a fun!!

  15. Salam!

    I assume most of you are trying to learn enough farsi to speak with friends or family that you’ve been trying to communicate with for a long time but the ‘language barrier’ (the dreaded barrier) gets in the way. I understand how that feels. I used to feel like that with farsi when I was younger. However, after having lived in Iran for a couple years and visiting it on several occasions(In fact I just got back a week ago from a one month visit), as well as growing up speaking it with my family, I can now communicate with friends and family in Farsi fluently. If anyone wants to speak the language, and understand the Iranian culture so you can talk and connect with those you care about, it’s a lot easier then you think. Fortunately farsi is one of those languages where most of the meaning is expressed directly rather then subtly, such as English.I also believe it’s much easier to learn then English. Therefore it’s very simple picking up the language. And there’s not an endless amount of words to learn. One must understand that 80% of conversations use only 20% of the vocabulary. Therefore, you only need to learn 20% of the words to speak and understand 80% of conversation! The ’80/20′ rule holds true in almost every language. In fact, I don’t even know how to read and write in Farsi, yet I can still speak it fluently and communicate with those I care about. So if your interested in learning how to connect with us Iranians, whether it’s friends, family, coworkers or because you want to visit Iran one day and see it’s breathtaking scenery, amazing culture and extremely hospitable people, then I can help you learn farsi! Contact me at Best of luck!

    • Kia ora. My name is Tony and I am from New Zealand in the South Pacific. I have a new Doctor starting at my work from Iran. I want to know how to say ‘welcome to our work place’ welcome to the Papakura Marae’ (name of workplace). Can you help me.

  16. Its much fun in learning persian, i have craze to learn and speak persian…… finally from now am trying to meet it …. :)

  17. Check out my website if you would like to learn persian or farsi.

  18. I am iranian
    Every body who want to learn persian connevt whit me
    Kik : tina kheiri
    Instagram and face book : tina kheiri

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